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Co-routines
[More about co-routines...]

Quick Co-routine Example

This quick example demonstrates the use of co-routines.
  1. Creating a simple co-routine to flash an LED

    The following code defines a very simple co-routine that does nothing but periodically flashes an LED.

    void vFlashCoRoutine( CoRoutineHandle_t xHandle,
                     UBaseType_t uxIndex )
    {
       // Co-routines must start with a call to crSTART().
       crSTART( xHandle );
    
       for( ;; )
       {
          // Delay for a fixed period.
          crDELAY( xHandle, 10 );
    
          // Flash an LED.
          vParTestToggleLED( 0 );
       }
    
       // Co-routines must end with a call to crEND().
       crEND();
    }
    
    Thats it!

  2. Scheduling the co-routine

    Co-routines are scheduled by repeated calls to vCoRoutineSchedule(). The best place to do this is from within the idle task by writing an idle task hook. First ensure that configUSE_IDLE_HOOK is set to 1 within FreeRTOSConfig.h. Then write the idle task hook as:

    void vApplicationIdleHook( void )
    {
       vCoRoutineSchedule( void );
    }
    
    Alternatively, if the idle task is not performing any other function it would be more efficient to call vCoRoutineSchedule() from within a loop as:
    void vApplicationIdleHook( void )
    {
       for( ;; )
       {
          vCoRoutineSchedule( void );
       }
    }
    

  3. Create the co-routine and start the RTOS scheduler

    The co-routine can be created within main().

    #include "task.h"
    #include "croutine.h"
    
    #define PRIORITY_0 0
    
    void main( void )
    {
       // In this case the index is not used and is passed 
       // in as 0.
       xCoRoutineCreate( vFlashCoRoutine, PRIORITY_0, 0 );
    
       // NOTE:  Tasks can also be created here!
    
       // Start the RTOS scheduler.
       vTaskStartScheduler();
    }
    

  4. Extending the example: Using the index parameter

    Now assume that we want to create 8 such co-routines from the same function. Each co-routine will flash a different LED at a different rate. The index parameter can be used to distinguish between the co-routines from within the co-routine function itself.

    This time we are going to create 8 co-routines and pass in a different index to each.

    #include "task.h"
    #include "croutine.h"
    
    #define PRIORITY_0        0
    #define NUM_COROUTINES    8
    
    void main( void )
    {
    int i;
    
       for( i = 0; i < NUM_COROUTINES; i++ )
       {
          // This time i is passed in as the index.
          xCoRoutineCreate( vFlashCoRoutine, PRIORITY_0, i );
       }
    
       // NOTE: Tasks can also be created here!
    
       // Start the RTOS scheduler.
       vTaskStartScheduler();
    }
    
    The co-routine function is also extended so each uses a different LED and flash rate.
    const int iFlashRates[ NUM_COROUTINES ] = { 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 };
    const int iLEDToFlash[ NUM_COROUTINES ] = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 }
    
    void vFlashCoRoutine( CoRoutineHandle_t xHandle, UBaseType_t uxIndex )
    {
       // Co-routines must start with a call to crSTART().
       crSTART( xHandle );
    
       for( ;; )
       {
          // Delay for a fixed period.  uxIndex is used to index into
          // the iFlashRates.  As each co-routine was created with
          // a different index value each will delay for a different
          // period.
          crDELAY( xHandle, iFlashRate[ uxIndex ] );
    
          // Flash an LED.  Again uxIndex is used as an array index,
          // this time to locate the LED that should be toggled.
          vParTestToggleLED( iLEDToFlash[ uxIndex ] );
       }
    
       // Co-routines must end with a call to crEND().
       crEND();
    }
    






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