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NOTE: This page is obsolete. Please use the thread safe coreMQTT Agent Demo that uses the coreMQTT Agent instead.

MQTT Agent and Demos using coreMQTT
Including Over the Air (OTA) updates


coreMQTT is an MIT licensed open source C MQTT client library for microcontroller and small microprocessor based IoT devices. Its design is intentionally simple to ensure it has no dependency on any other library or operating system, and to better enable static analysis including memory safety proofs. That simplicity and lack of operating system dependency (coreMQTT does not require multithreading at all) means coreMQTT does not build thread safety directly into its implementation. Instead thread safety must be provided by higher level software. This webpage demonstrates a coreMQTT extension that provides that higher level functionality in the form of an MQTT agent (or MQTT daemon). While the implementation demonstrated here is currently specific to FreeRTOS, there are not many dependencies on FreeRTOS, meaning the implementation can easily be adapted for use with other operating systems.

Implementation overview and usage model

The MQTT agent is an independent task (or thread of execution). It achieves thread safety very simply be being the only task that is permitted to access the MQTT library's API. Isolating all MQTT API calls to a single task serialises access, removing the need for semaphores or any other synchronisation primitives.

When using the agent, if an application task wants to perform an MQTT operation, for example publishing a message, it calls the MQTT agent's MQTTAgent_Publish() API instead of calling coreMQTT's MQTT_Publish() API. MQTTAgent_Publish() packages the information required to complete the Publish operation into a structure, then sends that structure over a queue to the MQTT agent task. The MQTT agent task receives the structure, then it calls the underlying MQTT library's MQTT_Publish() API on behalf of the application.

Each API that sends a command to the MQTT agent allows the application writer to optionally specify a callback function, and a parameter to be passed into the callback (called the callback context), for the agent to execute when the resultant MQTT operation completes. That way, the application task can opt to enter the Blocked state (so not consuming any CPU time) to wait for the callback's execution, or alternatively continue executing while the MQTT operation is in process. See the example at the end of this page.

Each API that sends a command to the MQTT agent also allows the application writer to specify the maximum time the calling task should wait in the Blocked state for space to become available in the queue used to send commands to the MQTT agent, should the queue be full at the time of the MQTT agent API call. Again, see the example at the end of this page.

Demo project


Note: The MQTT agent and associated example project are functional but not yet complete. Be aware the agent does not yet comply with our code quality standards and is not yet fully tested. The APIs are unlikely to change before its official first release.


main() initialises the TCP/IP stack before starting the FreeRTOS kernel scheduler. When the network connects, the network event hook creates a single RTOS task. That task optionally creates multiple other tasks, each of which connects to the MQTT broker before sending and receiving MQTT packets of various different size and at various different Quality of Service (QoS) levels. The original thread then becomes the MQTT agent thread.

The following constants define the created demo tasks. The links in the descriptions go to comments that provide more information at the top of each implementing source file.

  • #define democonfigCREATE_LARGE_MESSAGE_SUB_PUB_TASK [1 or 0]

    Set to 1 to create the task that runs the MQTT demo implemented in large_message_sub_pub_demo.c, or 0 to omit that task from the build.

  • #define democonfigNUM_SIMPLE_SUB_PUB_TASKS_TO_CREATE [n]

    Sets the number of instances to create of the task implemented in simple_pub_sub_demo.c, which can be 0.

  • #define democonfigCREATE_CODE_SIGNING_OTA_DEMO [1 or 0]

    Set to 1 to include Over the Air (OTA) update functionality, or 0 to omit OTA. There is a separate page that describes using OTA with this demo.

  • #define democonfigCREATE_DEFENDER_DEMO [1 or 0]

    Set to 1 to build the AWS Device Defender demo, or 0 to omit. The instructions for the Device Defender demo can be found here.

Obtaining the source code

The coreMQTT-Agent-Demos repository in the FreeRTOS GitHub account demonstrates the use of an agent on top of coreMQTT. It also demonstrates how to submodule other FreeRTOS libraries into a project. Do not use the "Download Zip" link in Gitub to obtain the code as the zip file will not include the submoduled libraries. Instead use one of the following Git commands to clone the repo and its submodules onto your local machine:

To clone using HTTPS:

git clone --recurse-submodules

Using SSH:

git clone --recurse-submodules

If you have downloaded the repo without using the --recurse-submodules argument, you need to run:

git submodule update --init --recursive

At the time of writing the project uses the FreeRTOS Windows port, the FreeRTOS-Plus-TCP TCP/IP stack, and builds using the free Community Edition of Visual Studio. Its directory structure is however structured to enable the addition of projects for other development tools soon.

Source code organisation

The git repo is organised as follows:
|  |
|  +-VisualStudio  Contains the Visual Studio project for this demo
|  |
|  +-AWS           Contains a sub-module for the OTA library along with an OTA PAL port for Windows.
|  +-FreeRTOS      Contains sub-modules of the FreeRTOS libraries used by the demo
|  +-ThirdParty    Contains submodules of third party libraries used by the demo
   +-configuration-files    Contains configuration files for the demo and libraries
   +- .                     Contains source files that implement the various demos

Configuring FreeRTOS-Plus-TCP

The demo uses the FreeRTOS-Plus-TCP TCP/IP stack, so follow the instructions provided for the TCP/IP starter project to ensure you:

  1. Have the pre-requisite components installed (such as WinPCap).
  2. Optionally set a static or dynamic IP address, gateway address and netmask.
  3. Optionally set a MAC address.
  4. Select an Ethernet network interface on your host machine.
  5. …and importantly test your network connection before attempting to run the MQTT demo.

Each demo project has its own configuration settings. When you are following the network configuration instructions, make sure to apply the settings in the MQTT demo project, rather than the TCP/IP starter project. By default the TCP/IP stack is configured to use a dynamic IP address.

Configuring the MQTT broker connection

The MQTT agent can connect to any MQTT broker, either locally or remotely, and either using TLS or in plain text. The Configuring an MQTT Broker section on the non-agent plain text demo documentation page details some local and remote plain text MQTT broker options. The Configuration an MQTT Broker section on the server authentication and mutual authentication pages detail some TLS encrypted MQTT broker options.

Additional notes for AWS IoT users: If you are going to connect to AWS IoT then you can create the necessary cloud and device side configurations by following the instructions provided in the Using the AWS IoT Message Broker section of the page that documents the separate mutual authentication demo. That section references scripts that can be found in the /lib/AWS/tools directory of the MQTT Agent repository.

Once you have decided on the broker to connect to, the code snippet below the following bullet points describes the compile time configuration constants that configure the MQTT connection. These constants are in /Source/configuration-files/demo_config.h. Place any keys required for TLS connections in the same file.

Important notes:

  • Plain text connections are useful to learn how MQTT works and to debug connections because the MQTT conversation can be viewed in a network sniffer such as WireShark. However, real IoT devices should not use an unencrypted plain text connection. Never send private data over a plain text connection - we highly recommend using encrypted and mutually authenticated connections for all IoT devices.

  • Placing keys in a header file is for convenience of demonstration only. We strongly recommend that real devices store keys in a secure location, such as a secure element or enclave. Further, we recommend real IoT devices access keys and other crypto objects via an API that does not expose the keys, such as PKCS #11 or PSA APIs.


* The MQTT client identifier used in this example. Each client identifier

* must be unique so edit as required to ensure no two clients connecting to the

* same broker use the same client identifier.


*!!! Please note a #defined constant is used for convenience of demonstration

*!!! only. Production devices can use something unique to the device that can

*!!! be read by software, such as a production serial number, instead of a

*!!! hard coded constant.


* Below is an example only.


#define democonfigCLIENT_IDENTIFIER "Thing1"


* MQTT broker endpoint to connect to.


* This demo application can be run with any MQTT broker, although it is

* recommended to use one that supports mutual authentication. If mutual

* authentication is not used, then #democonfigUSE_TLS should be set to 0.


* Not for AWS users: Your AWS IoT Core endpoint can be found in the AWS IoT

* console under Settings/Custom Endpoint, or using the describe-endpoint REST

* API (with AWS CLI command line tool).


* #define democonfigMQTT_BROKER_ENDPOINT "insert here."


* Examples include:

* #define democonfigMQTT_BROKER_ENDPOINT ""

* #define democonfigMQTT_BROKER_ENDPOINT ""


#define democonfigMQTT_BROKER_ENDPOINT "" /* Local broker */


* The TCP port to connect to.


* In general, port 8883 is for secured MQTT connections, and port 1883 if not

* using TLS.


* #define democonfigMQTT_BROKER_PORT ( insert here. )


* Below is an example only.


#define democonfigMQTT_BROKER_PORT ( 8883 )


* Whether to use mutual authentication. If this macro is not set to 1 or not

* defined, then plaintext TCP will be used instead of TLS over TCP.


#define democonfigUSE_TLS 1

MQTT agent configuration constants

The following code snippet shows the compile time constants relevant to the MQTT agent, along with their default values should they be left undefined. The MQTT agent does not have its own configuration file, but it will use any macros defined in core_mqtt_config.h. Macros defined there will be used in place of these defaults.


* The maximum number of pending acknowledgments to track for a single

* connection.


* The MQTT agent tracks MQTT commands (such as PUBLISH and SUBSCRIBE) that

* are still waiting to be acknowledged. MQTT_AGENT_MAX_OUTSTANDING_ACKS set

* the maximum number of acknowledgments that can be outstanding at any one time.

* If this threshold is reached, packets will still be sent, but reported as failure.

* The higher this number is the greater the agent’s RAM consumption will be.

* Each entry uses up to 8 bytes on a 32-bit microprocessor.




* Time in MS that the MQTT agent task will wait in the Blocked state (so not

* using any CPU time) for a command to arrive in its command queue before

* exiting the blocked state so it can call MQTT_ProcessLoop().


* It is important MQTT_ProcessLoop() is called often if there is known MQTT

* traffic, but calling it too often can take processing time away from lower

* priority tasks and waste CPU time and power.



Example of using the MQTT agent API

Important notes on the following code:
  1. The MQTT PUBLISH payload and topic string must remain valid until the MQTT PUBLISH has been acknowledged by the MQTT broker. In the example below the topic string is a static const, so it will always be valid anyway.

  2. In this example the task that calls MQTTAgent_Publish() waits to be notified that the MQTT PUBLISH command has been acknowledged by the server. It is optional for the task to pass the completion callback which executes upon receipt of the acknowledgment, but it is useful as it also signals when the buffers used to hold the MQTT publish information can be reused.

/* Application defined structure that will get typedef'ed to CommandContext_t. */
struct CommandContext
TaskHandle_t xTaskToNotify;
MQTTStatus_t xReturnStatus;

static const char * const pcTopicName = "/my/topic/x";

/* The information associated with a single MQTT agent. Each agent context

* holds the information for a single MQTT connection. This context must be

* initialized with a call to MQTTAgent_Init() prior to its use. */

static MQTTAgentContext_t xAgentContext;

/* Callback executed when the MQTT PUBLISH is acknowledged by the MQTT broker. */
static void prvCommandCallback( void *pxCommandContext,
MQTTStatus_t xReturnStatus )
CommandContext_t *pxApplicationDefinedContext = ( CommandContext_t * ) pxCommandContext;

/* Store the result in the application defined context and send a notification

to the initiating task. Since this callback executes in the thread context of

the MQTT agent task, the notification is necessary to signal the caller. */

pxApplicationDefinedContext->xReturnStatus = xReturnStatus;
xTaskNotify( pxApplicationDefinedContext->xTaskToNotify,
eSetValueWithOverwrite );

void ExampleOfCallingAgentPublish( char *pcPayload, uint16_t usPayloadLength )
MQTTPublishInfo_t xPublishInfo;
/* The context for the completion callback must stay in scope until

* the completion callback is invoked. In this example, using a stack variable

* is safe because the function waits for the callback to execute before returning. */

CommandContext_t xCommandContext;
MQTTStatus_t xCommandAdded;
BaseType_t xReturn;
CommandInfo_t xCommandInformation;

/* Complete an MQTTPublishInfo_t structure describing the publish operation.

MQTTPublishInfo_t is defined by coreMQTT and is the same as would be passed

into MQTT_Publish. */

xPublishInfo.qos = MQTTQoS1;
xPublishInfo.pTopicName = pcTopicName;
xPublishInfo.topicNameLength = ( uint16_t ) strlen( pcTopicName );
xPublishInfo.pPayload = pcPayload;
xPublishInfo.payloadLength = usPayloadLength;

/* Complete the CommandContext_t structure that will get passed into the

callback that executes when the publish command is ACKed by the MQTT

broker. The application writer defines this structure, and can put whatever

they like in it. This simple example stores the handle of the calling task

and provides a variable to store the status of the operation. See the

implementation of prvCommandCallback() above. */

xCommandContext.xTaskToNotify = xTaskGetCurrentTaskHandle();

/* Callback to execute the PUBLISH is acknowledged by the server. */
xCommandInformation.cmdCompleteCallback = prvCommandCallback;
/* The parameter to pass into the callback. In this case the parameter just

* holds the handle of the task calling this function. */

xCommandInformation.pCmdCompleteCallbackContext = &xCommandContext
/* Maximum time to wait enqueue the command for the agent. */
xCommandInformation.blockTimeMs = mqttexampleMAX_COMMAND_SEND_BLOCK_TIME_MS;

/* Send the command to the MQTT agent. */
xCommandAdded = MQTTAgent_Publish( /* The MQTT context to use. */
/* Structure that defined the MQTT PUBLISH

operation. */

/* Command Information. */
&xCommandInformation );
if( xCommandAdded == MQTTSuccess )
/* The command was successfully sent to the agent. At this point the

application writer can opt to wait for the callback to be executed,

meaning the MQTT broker acknowledged the MQTT PUBLISH. Note the data

pointed to by xPublishInfo.pTopicName and xPublishInfo.pPayload must

remain valid (not be lost from a stack frame or overwritten in a buffer)

until the PUBLISH is acknowledged. In this simple example the callback

sends a notification to this task. */

xReturn = xTaskNotifyWait( 0,
portMAX_DELAY ); /* Wait indefinitely. */

if( xReturn != pdFAIL )
/* The message was acknowledged and

xCommandContext.xReturnStatus holds the result of the operation. */


MQTT agent API

At this time the MQTT agent API is documented in the mqtt_agent.h header file and at the MQTT agent API References.
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